|Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business Research ISSN 2305-8277|
Author(s): Julie Jewell
Abstract: Mothers’ deliberate their choices and wonder what affect taking off work to raise a child will have on workforce reentry. Mothers, employers and lawmakers need to understand the decision of mothers, what biases they face, what impact they have when reentering the workforce. This quantitative and qualitative study looks at stay at home mothers or part time working mothers to view their beliefs on the choice of when or if to return to the workforce. The quantitative question asked to 169 mothers from across the United States discussed when or if they would return to the workforce. They were then provided with a comment section in which 20 mothers stated their issues about returning to the workforce. A qualitative interview was given to 3 Midwestern mothers from the United States about reenter into the workforce and if they felt they could reenter the workforce when they want, if there could be biases, and how they feel they will be viewed. Also asked was what they feel will be the hardest thing about reentering the workforce when or if they chose to.
Keywords: Career Choices; Maslow’s Hierarchy; Mothers; Sense making; Workforce Reentry.
- Northwestern Ohio University, Lima, OH, United States of America
Author(s): Papia Mitra 1, and Gholam Syedain Khan 2
Abstract: Day of the week effect is one of the most important calendar anomalies that have been observed in many stock markets in all over the world with a lot of different results. Stock markets are speculative market, thus, investors are more concerned about which day is the best for the trade. The primary objective of this paper is to find out the significant day of the week effect in the emerging stock market of a developing country like India for the period January 2001 to December 2012. In order to fulfill the objectives of the paper, 5 models have been estimated. In each model risk factor is defined in different ways thereby leading to different results. Empirical results verify that NSE Nifty50 does not depict such day of the week effects on the intraday and inter-day stock returns. While index exhibits Wednesday effect on inter-day return of the index, Monday gives lowest return but maximum volatility. However, in certain cases, Friday also suffers from the lowest return indicating presence of reverse weekend effect in the Indian stock market.
Keywords: Conditional; Unconditional; Market risk factors; NSE; Day-Of-The-Week effects; Intraday effects; Indian Stock Market.
- Department of Commerce, University of Calcutta 1&2
Author(s): Bader Al-Shammari
Abstract: This study investigated the association between specific corporate characteristics - mainly company size, leverage, liquidity, profitability, complexity, auditor type, and industry type - and corporate risk disclosure (CRD) in the annual reports for a sample of 109 Kuwaiti listed non-financial companies. A manual content analysis approach was used to measure risk disclosure by counting the number of risk-related sentences in annual reports. A multivariate regression analysis was employed to test the association between risk disclosure and the corporate-specific characteristics. The results indicated that the total sentences of risk disclosure were 1,461 sentences with a mean 19.87. The quantity of risk disclosures for all categories of risks was very limited. The findings showed that the CRD is associated positively with size, liquidity, complexity and auditor type. In addition, the results indicated significant differences among industries. However, the findings also showed that the association between CRD and other corporate-specific characteristics (leverage and profitability) is insignificant. This study concluded that the findings are also consistent with both agency and signaling theories.
Keywords: Risk disclosure; content analysis; agency theory; signaling theory; corporate-specific characteristics; Kuwait.
- College of Business Studies, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Kuwait
Author(s): Andrew Munthopa Lipunga
Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the risk disclosure level in annual reports of the Malawian commercial banks and the influence of profitability on it. The study used a risk disclosure index constructed based on the requirements of the Basel II framework, the corporate governance guidelines for banks issued by the Reserve Bank of Malawi and IFRS 7. The disclosure index consisted of 34 disclosure items divided into six categories namely: board and management structure related to risk management, market risk, credit risk, liquidity risk, capital management and operational and other risks. The results revealed a high risk disclosure level among the sampled banks. The individual bank score range was between 0.76 and 0.88 with an overall score of 0.82. Indicating that on average 82% of the disclosure items were actually disclosed in the annual reports of the sampled banks. Furthermore, the disclosure scores based on the risk disclosure categories varied between 0.61 and 1.00. The category with lowest score was board and management structure related to risk management (0.61) followed by operational risk and other risks (0.69). Capital management scored 0.74, whereas credit risk, liquidity risk and market risk each scored the maximum score of 1.00. Furthermore regression analysis suggested that profitability does not influence the level of risk disclosure.
Keywords: Annual reports; Risk disclosures; Risk disclosure Index; Malawi.
- University of Malawi - The Polytechnic
Author(s): Ehsan Ahmed Shaikh 1, Rizwana Bashir 2, and Maawra Salam 3
Abstract: In this study we are in the quest for most appropriate GARCH-family model for modeling the differenced log Consumer Price Index (CPI) CPI i.e. percentage change in CPI for Pakistan. Using various specifications for mean equation, study estimated GARCH (1,1) and GJR-GARCH (1,1). The study also estimates EGARCH (1,1) for monthly data of CPI. The estimation results reveal that ARMA (1,1)- GARCH (1,1) comes out to be most appropriate specification for modeling inflation volatility. The study finds no evidence of asymmetry in the response of inflation volatility to negative and positive shocks.
Keywords: Inflation; volatility; GARCH; Leverage effect; Pakistan.
- Govt. Degree Boys College 1
- University Karachi Campus 2&3